History and Current Strategy
Since its inception in 1984, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice (CJJ) has been steadfast in its commitment to a high quality, comprehensive program of federal assistance for state/local juvenile justice—the achievement of which charges CJJ to serve and support State Advisory Groups (SAGs), established under the federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) and appointed by Governors/Chief Executives in each U.S. jurisdiction.
The JJDPA (Part B, Title II 42 U.S.C. 5631 [Sec.221]) provides for federal assistance for state and local programs from the federal Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). It was established in 1974 and has been repeatedly reauthorized with bipartisan support.
While state agencies are required to submit to the federal government comprehensive State Plans for juvenile justice and delinquency prevention, as well as to administer these Plans, the JJDPA provides for SAGs to guide the development, implementation and funding of comprehensive State Plans. Within its State Plan, as well as within the core purpose areas for the use of federal juvenile justice appropriations to the states, each SAG has the unique opportunity to exercise leadership and strategic guidance to direct federal resources to advance best practices and, thereby, create optimal outcomes for the prevention of delinquency.
SAGs are also principally responsible for monitoring and supporting their state’s progress toward achieving compliance with and, more significantly, addressing the four core requirements of the JJDPA, with regard to:
- Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders (DSO), Section 223(a)(11), which states that status offenders and juveniles who are not charged with any offense, but who are aliens or alleged to be dependent, neglected or abused, shall not be placed in secure detention/correctional facilities. This provision excludes juveniles who are charged with or who have committed a violation of 922 (x)(2) of title 18 US Code, or of a similar State law, juveniles charged with or who have committed a violation of a valid court order, and juveniles held in accordance with the Interstate Compact;
- Sight and Sound Separation (Separation), Section 223 (a)(12), which states that accused and adjudicated delinquents, status offenders and non-offending juveniles will not be detained or confined in any institution where they may have contact with adult inmates. Moreover, the JJDPA of 2002 mandates that professionals who work with both adults and juveniles, including in co-located facilities, receive training and certification;
- Removal of Juveniles from Adult Jails and Lockups (Jail Removal), Section 223(a)(13), which states that juveniles cannot be detained in any adult jail or lockup. However, the JJDPA offers an exception for juveniles who are accused of non-status offenses and detained in a jail or lock-up for a period not to exceed 6 hours, during processing or release, while awaiting transfer to a juvenile facility, or when making a court appearance. The JJDPA also provides for a “rural exception,” which allows juveniles who are accused of delinquency offenses to be detained in an adult facility for up to 48 hours, after being taken into custody and while awaiting an initial court appearance. Juveniles cannot have sight or sound contact with incarcerated adults.
- Reduction of Disproportionate Minority Contact [previously Confinement] (DMC), Section 223(a)(22), which broadens the scope of the previously authorized disproportionate minority confinement requirement to include the over-representation of minority youth who come into contact with the juvenile justice system at any point. It specifically mandates the states to “address juvenile delinquency prevention efforts and system improvement efforts designed to reduce, without establishing or requiring numerical standards or quotas, the disproportionate number of juvenile members of minority groups who come into contact with the juvenile justice system.”
NEW! CJJ STRATEGIC PLAN 2011-2014
The Coalition for Juvenile Justice (CJJ) envisions a nation where fewer children are at risk of delinquency; and if they are at risk or involved with the justice system, they and their families receive every possible opportunity to live safe, healthy and fulfilling lives.
CJJ is a nationwide coalition of State Advisory Groups (SAGs) and allies dedicated to preventing children and youth from becoming involved in the courts and upholding the highest standards of care when youth are charged with wrongdoing and enter the justice system.
History and Standing
Since 1984, CJJ has supported a broad and active coalition across all 56 U.S. states, territories and the District of Columbia, as the nonprofit association of Governor-appointed SAG members operating under the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA), along with allied staff, individuals and organizations. CJJ members include concerned individuals, practitioners, advocates and youth who voluntarily serve at the state and national levels. CJJ is governed by an Executive Board of national and regional officers. All of CJJ’s formal positions on policy and related matters are developed and approved by a super-majority of the CJJ Council of SAGs. The Council comprises the Chairs or Chair-designees of SAGs holding membership in CJJ.
CJJ’s Substantive Areas of Work
Strategic Goals and Objectives for 2011-2014:
- Promoting evidence-informed policies and practices in delinquency reduction and prevention.
- Educating the public and advising government on urgent state and local issues and needs in federal juvenile justice policy.
- Assisting the states (inclusive of states, territories and the District of Columbia to meet the core requirements of the JJDPA.
- Instituting juvenile justice system reforms to improve racial/ethnic fairness, accessibility and overall quality of community, and court-based policies and practices.
- Linking national, state and local advocates and organizations together, across many disciplines and circumstances, to pursue a common mission.
CJJ defined specific strategies, objectives and expected key results for each of these goals. Click here to read the full 2011-2014 CJJ Strategic Plan
- Goal #1: Serve as the leading national organization on effective federal legislation, regulations, rules and policies pertaining to juvenile justice and delinquency prevention.
- Goal #2: Strengthen SAG members and the state advisory system as defined in the JJDPA to be as effective and influential as possible.
- Goal #3: Strengthen and build greater capacity for CJJ as an institution.
Distinguished leaders have served as CJJ's National Chairs.
Every two years, a new leader is chosen to represent the concerns of CJJ’s members, and to give visibility and voice to the needs and interests of juvenile justice advocates, youth and families, nationwide.
A member, who is elected by the CJJ Council of SAGs to become National Chair, first serves a year as Vice Chair-Chair Elect, then assumes the role of National Chair for a two-year term. After serving as National Chair, the leader contributes another year as Immediate Past Chair. CJJ National Chairs have included:
- 1980-1987 A.L. Carlisle, Cape Elizabeth, Maine - CJJ Founder
- 1988 Richard Gardell, St. Paul, Minnesota
- 1989 Allen Button, Louisville, Kentucky
- 1990 Robert M. Hunter, Boulder, Colorado
- 1991 Vicki B.E. Neiberg, East Lansing, Michigan
- 1992 Susan Morris, Shawnee, Oklahoma
- 1993 Farrell Lines, Albuquerque, New Mexico
- 1994 Michael E. Saucier, Portland, Maine
- 1995 Allison Fleming, Des Moines, Iowa
- 1996 Lavonda Taylor, West Memphis, Arkansas
- 1997 Thomas S. Begich, Juneau, Alaska
- 1998 Bernardine S. Hall, West Monroe, Louisiana
- 1999 Linda W. Hayes, Dunn, North Carolina
- 2000 Robert Pence, Littleton, Colorado
- 2001 B. Thomas Leahy, Basking Ridge, New Jersey
- 2002 Rodney Cook, Gladstone, Oregon
- 2003 John Dewese, Lancaster, South Carolina
- 2004 Kenneth A. Schatz, South Burlington, Vermont
- 2005 Vicki Blankenship, Fairbanks, Alaska
- 2006 Paul Lawrence, Goffstown, New Hampshire
- 2007-2008 Robin Jenkins, Fayetteville, North Carolina
- 2009-2010 David R. Schmidt, Albuquerque, New Mexico
- 2011-2012 Susan Kamp, South Burlington, Vermont